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Of the between to the person (ACP), by Carl Rogers-centred approach

Text of Carl Rogers
Translation Olga Kauffmann
Subtitles Yves Le Petit – Laborde

That is what I mean by an approach centered on the client or a person-centred approach?

For me, cela expresses the fundamental theme of all my professional life, because this theme is clarified through the experience, interaction with others and looking.
This theme has been exploited, and found effective in many different areas until the broad label of the person-centred approach would have appeared more descriptive.
The central hypothesis of this approach can be summarized as follows:

"Each individual has considerable capacity to understand, to change the idea he has of himself, his attitudes and his way to behave; It may draw on these resources, provided that it is ensured a climate of psychological "enabling" attitudes which can be determined."

Three conditions are this climate favouring development and it is a relationship between the therapist and client, parent and child, the leader and group, Professor and the pupil or the Director and his team…
In fact, the conditions shall apply to any situation in which the objective is the development of the person. (…)

1 – The congruence

The first element focuses on authenticity or congruence.
Plus the therapist himself, or herself, in the relationship, not professional facade or personal, larger image displaying is the probability that the customer will change and grow in a constructive manner.
Cela means that the therapist is openly feelings and attitudes that flow in him at the time.
There is a State of unification, or congruence between the ongoing emotional experience at the level of the guts, the conscience of this experience and what is expressed to the client.

2 – The unconditional positive regard

The second important to create an environment promoting change is the acceptance or attention, or the consideration: the unconditional positive regard.
Cela means that when the therapist experienced a positive, free of judgment, accepting attitude towards the customer is at the moment, whatever it is, then the therapeutic movement, or change, is more likely.

Cela asks the therapist will let the client be the feeling that it is experiencing, whatever it is: confusion, resentment, fear, anger, courage, love or pride.
It is not possessive attention.
When the therapist accepts the client in a total way rather than conditional, a movement forward is likely.

3 – Empathy

The third facilitative aspect of the relationship is empathic understanding.
Cela means that the therapist feels exactly the feelings and personal meanings that the client is trying to experiment and that it communicates this accepting understanding to the client.
When operation is at his best, the therapist is so immersed in the world deprived of the other, that he or she can not only to clarify the meanings of which the client is aware but even those just below the level of consciousness.
This type of listening, very special, active, is one of the most powerful forces that I know to promote change.

The evidence

There is an accumulation of evidence, gradually generated through research, which, in general, argue that when these enabling conditions are present, changes in personality and behavior are really involved.
This research has been pursued in this country and in others, 1949 to date.
Studies were made on changes in attitudes and behaviour in the field of psychotherapy, education, aptitude for learning, and the behavior of schizophrenics.
In general, these studies are a confirmation.


The practice, theory and research make it clear that the person-centred approach is based on a trust basis in the person.
It is perhaps its most acute point of difference with most institutions in our culture.
In education, the Government; Affairs, a good part of family life, of psychotherapy, is practically based on a mistrust in the person.

The individual is seen as unable to choose goals that suit him, also should be fixing them him.
And must guide him towards these goals, because otherwise it could deviate from the selected path.
Teachers, parents, supervisors develop procedures to ensure that the individual is progressing towards the chosen goal. examinations, controls, questions are some of the methods used.
The person is seen as a being inherently sinful, destructive, lazy or all three at once. And this person must constantly be monitored.

But the person-centred approach is based on the updating, this trend in every living organism: the tendency to hatching, to development, to the realization of its full potential.
This way to be trusted in the constructive directional trend of human beings towards more complex and more comprehensive development.
Our goal is to liberate this directional trend.

Code of ethics of the EAP (European Association of psychotherapy)

We recall following the Code of Ethics developed by the EAP (European Association of psychotherapy) which was adopted by the General Assembly of the EAP may 20, 1995 at Vienna in Switzerland.
It was translated into french by the Office of the French Federation of psychotherapy (FF2P), in Paris, on 21 March 1996.

All members of national societies associated with the EAP, as well as individual members of the latter, are required to practise their profession with a particularly acute sense of their responsibilities towards their own person, their therapeutic work and people with a particular relationship is created through the psychotherapeutic treatment. The national societies of the EAP are obliged to pay attention to the questions of ethics. This applies to trainers, members and candidates of the national societies in question. The rules of conduct of national societies: to protect the patient/client against abusive applications of psychotherapy by practitioners or trainers, serve as rules of conduct for their members, serve as a reference in case of complaint.


The profession of clinical psychologist is a specific discipline in the field of the humanities. It involves a diagnosis and an overall strategy and explicit treatment of psychological, social and psychosomatic disorders. The methods used are based on scientific theories of psychotherapy. Through interaction between one or more patients/clients and one or more psychopraticiens, this treatment is designed to trigger a therapeutic process allowing changes and evolution in the long term. The profession of clinical psychologist is characterized by the involvement of the therapist in the realization of the above objectives. The clinical psychologist is required to use its jurisdiction in respect of values and the dignity of the patient/client in the best interests of the latter.
The clinical psychologist must indicate its qualification in the speciality where it was formed.


The clinical psychologist must exercise his profession in a competent manner and in compliance with ethics. It must keep up with the research and scientific development of psychotherapy – which implies a permanent continuing education.
The clinical psychologist is required to practise that methods of treatment and in the fields of psychotherapy to justify knowledge and sufficient experience.

The clinical psychologist and his eventual team are subject to absolute secrecy regarding all that is entrusted to them in the exercise of their profession. This same obligation applies under supervision.

From the beginning of therapy, the clinical psychologist must attract the attention of his client on its rights and highlight the following points:
• Type of method used (if appropriate to the situation of the client). It specifies the conditions of work (including the terms of cancellation or stop),
• Duration of treatment,
• Financial conditions (fees, supported, regulation of the missed meetings),
• Solicitor-client privilege,
• Possibility of recourse in case of dispute. The patient/client must be able to decide whether and with whom he wants to undertake treatment (free choice of therapist).
The clinical psychologist is compelled to assume responsibilities taking into account specific conditions of trust and dependency that characterize the therapeutic relationship. There is abuse of this relationship from the moment where the clinical psychologist missing its duty and its responsibility to the patient/client to satisfy his personal interest (e.g.: on sexual, emotional, social or economic). Any form of abuse represents an offence the specific ethical guidelines for the profession of clinical psychologist. Full responsibility for the abuse is the responsibility of the clinical psychologist. Any irresponsible action in the context of the relationship of trust and dependency created by psychotherapy constitute serious misconduct.

The information provided to the patient/client concerning the conditions in which takes place the treatment must be accurate, objective and factual. Any misleading advertising is prohibited. Examples: Unrealistic promises of healing, refers to many different therapeutic approaches, suggesting more extensive training than it is in reality (formations initiated and not completed).

If necessary, the clinical psychologist should work in an interdisciplinary way with representatives from other sciences, in the interest of the patient/client.

These ethical principles shall also apply by analogy, the relationship between trainers and students.

The responsibility of the psychopraticiens at the level of the company requires that they work to contribute to the maintenance and the establishment of conditions of life likely to promote, safeguard and restore mental health, maturation and the development of the human being.

To promote the scientific evolution of psychotherapy and its effects, the clinical psychologist must, to the extent possible, collaborate on research work in this direction. The highest ethical principles must also be complied on the occasion of this research and publication work. The interests of the patient/client remain priority.


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